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按照内容含义划分的英语句子种类
08-12-27 | www.ningbotutor.com | From: 网络 View:

    按照内容含义划分的英语句子种类
 

(1)陈述句(Declarative Sentence)

定义  就事物依照其实在情形陈述的句子叫做陈述句。陈述句的句末必须使用句号(Full Stop)“.”,以示句子的陈述结束。

(2)疑问句(Interrogative Sentence)

定义  表达疑问(亦即发问)或请求的句子叫做疑问句。

例:Is he a friend of your brother''s?

(他是你哥哥的朋友吗?——发问)

例:Can you do this for me?

(你能替我做这件事吗?——请求)

疑问句的句末必须使用问号(Question mark)“?”来标示问句的结束。

疑问句可再分为一般疑问(General question)和特殊疑问(Special question)两种。(Yes-no questions)

(a)一般疑问:用be或助动词置于句首,并以“Yes,…”,或“No,…”回答的问句称为一般疑问(也称Yes-no questions)。

①be 或 have(有)置于句首来表达疑问:

例:Am I wrong again?

(我又错了?)

 Yes, you are (wrong again).

(是的,你又错了。)

 No, you aren''t.

(不,你没错。)

例:Is it your bicycle?

(这辆自行车是你的吗?)

 Yes, it is.

(是的,是我的。)

 No, it isn''t.

(不,那不是我的。)

例:Were there many people at her birthday party?

(她的生日宴会来了很多人吗?)

 Yes, there were.

(是的,来了很多人。)

 No, there weren''t.

(没有,没有很多人。)

例:Have you money with you?

(=Do you have money with you?——美语)

(你身上带钱了吗?)

 Yes, I have.(Yes, I do.——美语)

(有,我带钱了。)

 No, I have no money with me.

(No, I don''t.——美语)

(没有,我没带钱。)

②助动词置于句首来表达疑问:

例:Shall I call a taxi for you ?(需要我替你叫一辆出租车吗?)

Yes, please. Thank you.

(好的,谢谢你。)

(No, thank you.)

(不必了,谢谢你。)

例:Will you do that for her?(你愿意替她做那件事吗?)

Yes, I will.(是的,我愿意。)

No, I won''t.(不,我不愿意。)

例:Can she drive?(她会开车吗?)

Yes, she can.(是的,她会。)

No, she can''t.(不,她不会。)

③一般动词则使用“do”来表达疑问:

例:Do you speak Japanese?(你会说日语吗?)

Yes, I do.(是的,我会说。)

No, I don''t.(不,我不会说。)

例:Does she swim very well.(她游泳游得好吗?)

Yes, she does. She is a good swimmer.

(是的,她游得好。她是游泳高手。)

No, she doesn''t. She doesn''t swim at all.

(不,她不会。她根本不会游泳。)

例:Did you tell her the truth?(你向她说了实话吗?)

Yes, I did.(是的,我说了。)

No, I didn''t.(不,我没说。)

例:Don''t you like to have a cup of coffee?(你不喜欢喝一杯咖啡吗?)

Yes, I do.(要,我要一杯。)

No, I don''t. Thank you.

(不,我不要。谢谢你。)

注:依循否定疑问要表达否定答案时,中文的习惯是“是的,……不……(或没有……)”,但是英语应为“No, …not.”,不可如中文说成“Yes,…not.”。

(b)特殊疑问(Wh-questions):使用疑问词(what,who,which,how,why,when,where,etc.)发问,不能用“Yes,…”或“No,…”回答的问句叫做特殊疑问句(也称Wh-questions)。

例:What is that in your hand?

(你手里拿的是什么?)

It''s a brooch, a present from my elder brother.

(是胸针,是我哥哥送我的礼物。)

例:Who is the young lady sitting beside your mother?

(坐在你母亲旁边的那位年轻女士是谁?)

She is my aunt on my mother''s side.

(她是我的姨妈。)

例:Which do you like to have, tea or coffee.

(你要哪一种,茶还是咖啡?)

Coffee, please.

(请给我咖啡。)

例:How often do you have you English class in a week?

(你的英语课一星期有几次?)

Four periods a week.

(每星期有四节课。)

(c)疑问句的音调:

疑问句的基本而正常的音调如下:

①一般疑问:

 

②特殊疑问:

 

Drilling Square

Ⅰ.请把下列各句陈述句改为疑问句。

1.There is no water in the bottle.

2.She can sing and dance very well.

3.He has a brother in the United States.

4.It often rains in summer here.

5.Her cousin lives in Suzhou.

6.They always played together at that time.

7.Tom got home very late yesterday.

Ⅱ.下面各题都是答句,请写出各题的问句。

1.Yes, he does. He come here very often.

2.No, I wasn''t. I was out yesterday evening.

3.Yes, I did. I always lock the door of my room when I go out.

4.He is my new teacher of English.

5.I brush my teeth two times a day.

6.He didn''t go to school yesterday because he was sick.

7.She lives at 68 on Park Street.

(3)祈使句(Imperative Sentence)

定义 用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子叫做祈使句,祈使句最常用于表达命令,因此在学校文法中也常称为命令句。

祈使句因对象(即主语)是第二人称,所以通常都省略。祈使句的动词都为一般现在时,句末则使用句号来表示结束。

Go and wash your hands.

(去洗你的手。——命令)

Be quiet, please.(Please be quiet.)

(请安静。——请求)

Be kind to our sister.

(对姊妹要和善。——劝告)

Watch your steps.

(走路小心。——警告)

Look out!Danger!

(小心!危险!——强烈警告,已如感叹句)

Keep off the grass.

(勿践草坪。——禁止)

No parking.

(禁止停车。——禁止)

解说祈使句的否定通常使用“Don''t …”,例如:

Don''t let the dog in.

(不要让那只狗进来。)

Don''t touch, please.

(请不要用手触摸。)

Don''t be silly.

(别傻了。)

祈使句也常把主语“You”表达出来,使对方听起来觉得柔和些,例如:

You go and tell him, Chris.

(克立斯你去告诉他。)

(4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentence)

定义表达强烈情绪(喜、怒、哀、乐、惊、恐等)的句子叫做感叹句。

强烈情绪的表达通常有下列三种方式。

(a)使用感叹词(请参考第三章,构词法与词类——词类,H)

(b)只用情绪感觉的语词,例如:

Water! Water! Quick!

(水!水!快!——如救火或救人时。)

What taste!

(这是什么味道啊!——如吃到怪味时)

(c)使用“How…!”或“What(a)…!”的句式,例如:

How beautiful you are, Helen!

(海伦,您是多么地美!)

What a beautiful flower it is!

(这一朵花多么地美!)

本句式的主语动词也可以省去以突显情绪的强烈感,例如:

How cruel/(they are)!

(真是惨绝人寰!——如听到绑票的撕票案等。)

How beautiful (these flowers are )!

(d)使用简短的陈述句配合音调也可以表达感叹,例如:

You are kidding!

(你在开玩笑!——表示惊讶)

I hate you!

(我恨你!——表示愤怒或绝望)

Drilling Square

请在下列短文找出祈使句和感叹句,若是祈使句请在该句下面加线,若是感叹句则请加上感叹号。

"Tom Susan"said Betty.

"Will you come here?

Come and see what I have.

See what is in my box."

Tom said,"Here we come.

We will come fast.

We want to see what you have."

"Look, Tom, look"said Susan.

"Look at the white kitten.

What a little kitten.

I like this little Pet."

"Look, Susan" said Tom.

"See the kitten run to Betty.

The kitten likes Betty."

"Tom Tom" said Betty.

"See my white kitten run.

See my kitten run to the tree.

Will you get my kitten, Tom?"

Tom said,"Here I go.

I will got the kitten."

Tom said,"Look up in the tree.

See the kitten go up in the tree."

"My, My" said Father.

"This kitten can run fast.

What a frisky little kitten"

"Frisky Frisky" said Betty.

"You are Frisky kitten.

Frisky kitten is my little pet."

—The Little White House , Odille Ousley

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