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定语从句中关系代词的用法差异
08-12-27 | www.ningbotutor.com | From: 网络 View:

   

定语从句中关系代词的用法差异

在定语从句中,which、that、who、 whose与as是经常使用到的关系代词。应注意他们在用法上的区别。
1.which和that指事物时的区别
1)在all,any,every,no,only,few, little,many,much,the first/last等限定词及形容词最高级后一般用that而不用 which。例如:
If the members of your club have any questions that haven''t been answered by thisletter,please write again.
如果你俱乐部成员有这封信还没回答的问题,请再写信。
It is the only building(that)I''ve ever seen which is made entirely of glass.
这是我见过的唯一一座全用玻璃建造的建筑。
Which was the first/fastest/next steamship that crossed the Atlantic?
哪艘轮船首先/最快/随于其后横渡了大西洋?

2)直接跟在介词后时,要用which而不用that;若不紧跟在介词后,也可用 that。例如:
The ladder on which I was standing be-gan to slip./The ladder which /that I was standing on began to slip.
我正站着的那个梯子开始滑动。

3)非限制性定语从句中多用which而不用that。例如:
They thought him dull,which he was not.
他们认为他头脑迟钝,实际他并非如此。

 4)表示方式、时间、处所、原因等时,只用that而不用which;that也可省略。例如:
 I did like the way(that)she spoke tome.
我确实喜欢她对我说话的方式。
I''ll never forget the Sunday(that)/when you first arrived.
我永远不会忘记你刚到的那个星期天。

5)定语从句为"there be"结构,从句主语只能用that,不用which。例如:
This is the only one(that)there is.
这是此处所有的唯一一个。
I must make full use of the time(that) there is left to me.
我必须充分利用我剩下的时间。

6)先行词既包括人,也包括物时,一般用 that。例如:
He talked brilliantly of the men and the books that interested him.
他对他所喜欢的人和书侃侃而谈。

7)分裂句中,指物时一般用that。例如:
What was it that he wanted?他想要的是什么?

8)如前面已有which,为了避免重复,用 that。例如:
Which is the car that overtook us?是哪辆车超过了我们?

9)指物的先行词有复杂的修饰成份时,更倾向于使用which。例如:
I have interests outside my immediate work and its problems which I find satisfying.
在我的直接工作及其问题之外,我有令人满意的爱好。

2.who与that指人时的区别

1)非限制性定语从句中,只能用who不能用that。例如:
His mother,who by that time was tired out,gave him a smack.
他的母亲,到那时已筋疲力尽了,给了他一巴掌。

2)作表语时,用that而一般不用who。例如:
She is not the brilliant dancer that she used to be.
她不再是过去那个优秀的舞蹈家了。

3)定语从句为"there be"结构,从句主语只能用that,不用who。例如:
He is regarded as a gifted musician(that) there has ever been.
他被认为是这里曾有过的一位天才音乐家。

4)指人的代词those后习惯用who,不用 that。例如:
Those who take bribes will be punished.受贿的人要受到惩罚。

3.which与whose作定语时的区别
在定语从句中,which和whose都可作定语,但是which一般只用在非限制性定语从句中,仅指物,并且要接一个对先行词起概括作用的泛指名词;"which +名词"与先行词指同一事物或情况,既可用于限制性定语从句中,也可用于非限制性定语从句中;既可指人,也可指物。"whose +名词"与先行词不表示同一事物或情况。比较下面例句a)和例句b):

a)He is studying economics,which knowl- edge is very important today.
(knowledge概括了economics)他正在研究经济学,这门知识今天很重要。
b)The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied.
窗户坏了的那所房子没人砖
a)Tom spent four years in college,duringwhich time he learned French.
汤姆上了四年大学,其间他学了法语。
b)It was an island whose name I have forgotten.
那是一个岛屿,它的名字我已忘记了。

4.as与which作关系代词时的区别
1)限制性定语从句中,与as,so,such, the same连用时,要使用as,不能使用which。例如:
Here is so difficult a problem as none of us can solve.
这里有一个很难的问题,我们谁也解决不了。
He returned with tobacco,matches,and such provisions as were needed.
他带着烟叶,火柴和所需供应品回来了。

2)非限制性定语从句中,存在着以下主要差别:
i)as引导的从句位置灵活,可位于句首、句中或句尾(处于句首或句中时常常被翻译成"正如......,正像......"),而which引导的从句常常位于句末,几乎不放在句首。例如:
As he hoped,he saw the girl.
正如他所希望的,他见到了那个女孩儿。
She did not,as her friend had feared,open the case.
她没有像她朋友担心的那样,把箱子打开。(as指下文"open the case"这件事)
He married her,which/as was natural.
他和她结婚了,这是自然的。
ii)as作从句主语时,一般见于主---系---表结构或被动结构(并且有些已形成固定形式如as is often the case,as was feared);而which并不受此限制。例如:
Things,as is often the case,will turn out to be contrary to one''s wishes.
很常见的情况是,事与愿违。
He must be an African,as may be seen from the color of his skin.
他一定是非洲人,这可以从他的皮肤颜色看出来。(as在被动结构中作主语;也可用which)
He saw the girl,which delighted him.
他见到了那位姑娘,这使他很高兴。(从句为主---动---宾结构,不能用as)
iii)as引导的从句内容与主句内容为相辅相承关系(而不是相反关系);which却无此限制。比较下面例句a)和例句b):
a)He arrived late,which /as was usualwith him.
他迟到了,这对他来说是常有的事。(相辅相承关系)
b)He arrived late,which was unusual.
他迟到了,这对他来说是少有的事。(相反关系)

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