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英语名词的单复数与一致性
08-12-27 | www.ningbotutor.com | From: 网络 View:

    英语名词的单复数与一致性
 

1. 并列结构作主语时与谓语的一致关系

a) 由and连接两个名词或者代词作主语时
A and B分为以下四种情况:

i. A、B表示不同的人、物或者观念的时候,谓语动词要用复数形式
Li Ming and Zhang Hua are good students.
Both the parents and the children are here.

ii. A、B表示同一个人、物或者观念的时候,谓语动词要用单数形式
A journalist and author lives in the sixth flat.
The turner and fitter is under twenty-five.

iii. And连接几个单数主语,主语由each、 every、 no、 many等词修饰的时候,谓
语动词要用单数
Each boy and each girl is invited.
Every boy and girl is invited.
No boy and no girl is there now.

iv. A、B为两个不可分的东西时,谓语动词用单数
A law and rule about protecting environment has been drawn up.
Bread and butter is nutritious.
b) 由or, not only...but also..., either...or..., neither...nor...连接主语时,谓语的人称和数与靠近的主语一致(注意,叙述句和疑问句随语序不同而不同)
Either you or I am mad.
Neither you nor he is naughty.
Not only the farmer but also his family were friendly to me.
c) 当主语后跟有with, along with, together with, besides, except, like, including, as well as, rather than等词的时候,谓语动词不受词组的影响,仅和主语保持一致
All but one were here just now.
A library with five thousand books is offered to nation as a gift.


2. 单一主语的情况
a) 以复数形式结尾的名词作主语时,例如physics, maths, economics, news, means, works, 等一般在谓语动词中用单数形式, 当然,若表示复数的意思则另当别论
Physics is very important.
Every means has been tried.

b) 表示双部分工具的名称,衣服名称等作主语时,例如trousers/pants, shoes, glasses, scissors, goods, clothers等,谓语用复数形式;如果这些词由Pair(suit,
piece, series,kind)+ of修饰的时候,谓语动词要用单数
My trousers are white and his clothes are black.
A pair of scissors is lying in that drawer.

但是在these/those pairs (…) of + 复数名词之后,谓语动词则用复数形式
These kinds of glasses are popular this summer.

3. 动名词,不定式,从句作主语的时候,谓语动词一般要用单数

To see is to believe.
Swimming is a good way to keep health.
Who is her father is not known.

4. 集体名词作主语时
a) mankind/humanity/man(人类)作主语的时候,谓语动词一般用单数形式
Only man is knows how to cook.
b) 由people, police, cattle, youth等集体名词作主语的时候,谓语动词用复数形式
The cattle are grazing in the field.
c) Family, croud, class, public, enemy等集体名词作主语的时候

i. 若当整体看,则谓语动词用单数形式
Our class is very diligent.

ii. 若他们表示的人或者事物当作若干个个体来看,谓语动词则用复数形式
When I came into the room, his family were watching TV.

iii. A family/group/class作主语时,谓语动词用单数
families/groups/classes作主语时,谓语动词用复数
A group is coming to the zoo.

5. 其他情况
a) 主语为表示距离、时间、长度、价值、金额、重量等复数名词的时候,谓语动词用单数形式
3 kilometers is not very far.
Three times three makes nine.

b) one, every/each one, each, anyone, either, neither + of + 复数名词
谓语动词一般用单数形式,因为of之后的复数名词不是主语而是介词of的宾语,of前面的one, every one … 才是主语
Neither of them is right.
Each of them has a slide.

c) none of + 不可数名词——谓语动词用单数形式
none of + 可数名词 ——谓语动词单复均可
None of that money in the desk is his.
None of his classmates knows the truth.


d) 分数或百分数 + of + 词组
分数或百分数+ of +词组作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于of后的名词或者代词的数;若名词或代词是复数,谓语动词用复数,若名词或代词是单数,则谓语动词用单数
Three-thirds of the surface of the earth is sea.
Tens of tons of waste goes into the air with the smoke every day.

e) more than one +(单数名词)+单数动词
more than two +(复数名词)+复数动词
More than one white rose has bloomed.
More than two white roses have bloomed.

f) a (great) number of + 复数名词 ——用复数动词
the number of + 任何名词 —— 用单数动词
A great number of tourists have been to the Great Wall.
The number of students in the computer class is limited to ten.

g) the + 形容词,表示一类人 ——谓语动词用复数
the + 形容词,表示一类物 ——谓语动词用单数
The rich are for the decision but the poor are against it.
The beauty is here.

h) every, any, some, no 构成的复合词
everyone, everybody, everything
anyone, anybody, anything       这些复合词作主语的时候,谓语动词用单
someone, somebody, something        数形式
no one, nobody, nothing
Everyone in the class was surprised at the news.
Listen, someone is knocking at the door.

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