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非谓语动词作宾语补足语的用法及区别
08-12-27 | www.ningbotutor.com | From: 网络 View:

   

非谓语动词作宾语补足语的用法及区别

英语中有些及物动词后除了要求跟有宾语外,还要求跟有宾语补足语(简称为宾补),句子的意思才能完整。宾语和宾补一起构成复合宾语,它们之间的关系是逻辑上的主谓关系。英语中的三种非谓语动词(即V-ing形式、V-ed形式和不定式)都可以充当宾补。但它们的形式不同,表示的意义不同。在大学英语四级考试中出现了很多非谓语动词作宾补的试题。本文结合这些试题讲一下这三种非谓语动词作宾补的用法及区别。

一、V-ing形式作宾补

V-ing形式作宾补,表示动作的过程,即动作正在进行,尚未结束。宾语与宾补之间是主动的逻辑主谓关系。它主要是用在下列两类动词之后。

1.感觉动词,主要有see,hear,watch,observe,notice,feel,find,catch,look at,listen to等。如:

◇Suddenly he heard someone knocking gently on the window.
忽然他听见有人轻轻敲窗子。

◇On the top of the hill,he could see smoke rising from the chimneys in the village.
站在山顶上,他可以看到村里升起了缕缕炊烟。
如果宾语与宾补之间是被动的逻辑主谓关系,则要用V-ing形式的被动语态being done。如:

◇(A)Corn originated in the New World andthus was not known in Europe until Columbus found it _____ in Cuba.(CET-4,2000. 1-45)

A)being cultivated
B)been cultivated
C)having cultivated
D)cultivating

◇(D)The children went there to watch the iron tower _____ .(CET-4,1990.1-55)
A)to erect
B)erecting

C)be erected
D)being erected

◇You will find the matter being talked about all over the town.
你会发现城里到处都在谈论这件事。

◇The boy liked to watch the boats being loaded and unloaded.
这男孩爱看轮船装卸货物。

2.使役动词,主要有have,get,leave, keep,start,send,set等。如:

◇(D)His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose.(CET-4,1999.6-45)

A)wondered
B)wonder
C)to wonder
D)wondering

◇We''d better keep the fire burning.最好让炉火继续着下去。

◇His letter left me feeling pretty bad.他的信使我感到相当难受。

◇What she said set me thinking.她说的话使我深思。

二、V-ed形式作宾补

V-ed形式作宾补,着重动作完成,表明动作的结果,它与宾语之间是被动的逻辑主谓
关系。它主要是用在下列两类动词之后。

1.表示感觉和心理状态的动词,主要有 hear,see,find,notice,feel,watch,like,think等。如:

◇(A)You will see this product _____ wherever you go.(CET-4,2000.6-30)

A)advertised
B)advertise

C)advertising
D)to be advertised

 ◇When they got there,they found the house burnt down.
他们到那儿时,发现房子已全部烧毁。

 ◇If you asked some Americans how they liked their steak cooked,you would get a variety of answers.

如果你问一些美国人他们愿意怎么烹调牛排,你会得到种种回答。

 2.表示"致使"意义的使役动词,主要有 get,have,make,keep,leave等。如:

 ◇(C )Don''t get your schedule_____;stay with us in this class.(CET-4,1996.1-42)
A)to change
B)changing
C)changed
D)change

◇(C )In Australia the Asians make their influence _____ in businesses large and small.(CET-4,1990.1-67)
A)feeling
B)feel
C)felt
D)to be felt

◇(C )The manager promised to keep me_____ of how our business was going on.(CET- 4,1990.1-57)
A)to be informed
B)on informing
C)informed

D)informing

◇(B )If you want_____,you have to get the fund somewhere.(CET-4,1989,1-46)
 A)that the job is done
 B) the job done
 C)to have done the job
 D)the job that is done

◇(A )Operations which left patients _____ and in need of long periods of recovery time now leave them feeling relaxed and comfortable.(CET-4,2001.1-67)
 A) exhausted
 B)abandoned
 C)injured
 D)deserted

三、不定式作宾补
不定式作宾补,它与宾语的关系是主动的逻辑主谓关系。这又可以分为以下几种情况。
1.不带to的不定式作宾补
这种不定式主要跟在两类动词之后:

1)感觉动词,主要有see,watch,notice, observe,hear,listen to,feel等。不定式(短语)表示的动作发生在感觉动词之前,事情的全部过程已经结束。如:

◇(D )I have heard both teachers and students _____ well of him.(CET-4,1999.6-46)
A)to speak
B)spoken
C)to have spoken
D) speak

◇Did you see anyone go out of the room?(=Did you see that anyone went out of the
room ?)你看到有人离开了这房间吗?

◇She felt someone pat her on the shoulder.她感到有人拍了拍她的肩膀。
2)使役动词,主要有make, have,let等。这时宾补表示的动作
发生在使役动词之后。如:

◇(A )They are going to have the serviceman _____ an electric fan in the office tomorrow.(CET-4,1998.1-44)
A) install
B)to install
C)to be installed
D)installed

◇(C )My sister''s professor had her _____her paper many times before allowing her to present it to the committee.(CET-4,1989. 1-53)
A)rewritten
B)to rewrite
C) rewrite
D)rewriting

◇(C )With the development in science and technology man can make various flowers _____ before their time.(CET-4,2001. 6-36)
A)be bloomed
B)blooming
C) bloom
D)bloomed

2.带to的不定式作宾补
常见的要求带这种结构的动词有:force, tell,require,teach,warn,allow,ask,beg,expect,invite,order,permit,promise,instruct, urge,remind,want,advise,persuade,cause,forbid,like,challenge,request,get,need,oblige,encourage,enable,compel
等,作宾补的动词所表示的动作发生在这些动词之后。如:
◇His conscience compelled him to confess.他的良心迫使他承认。
◇They urged the committee to make the decision soon.他们极力主张委员会尽快做出决定。
◇Don''t force yourself to write when you have nothing to say.写不出的时候不要硬写。

3.在help,bid,know后可带to也可不带 to
◇ I''ve never known her(to)tell lies.我从没听说她说谎。
◇Will you help me wash the clothes?你能帮我洗衣服吗?
◇He bade the soldiers shoot.他命令士兵开枪。

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