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分词作状语的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致的种种情况
08-12-27 | www.ningbotutor.com | From: 网络 View:

   

                                      分词作状语的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致的种种情况

英语中常把分词或分词短语放在句首,作时间、原因、条件、方式、伴随状况、结果、目的及让步等状语,分词或分词短语的逻辑主语必须与句中的主语相同(即保持一致),否则句子就是错误的。例如:
1.Entering the room ,I found the walls newly-painted.(对)
 我走进房间时,发现墙壁油漆一新。
 Entering the room,the first thing that met eyes was the newly-painted walls.(错)

2.Badly wounded the soldier was sent to hospital at once.(对)
士兵受了重伤,立即被送到医院。
Badly wounded,we sent the soldier to hospital at once.(错)

3.Being very busy,I could not afford the time to go to the cinema.(对)
我因为太忙,不能花时间去看电影了。
Being very busy,the film tickets were given to others.(错)

4.Led by the Party,we are making great progress in our work.(对)
在党的领导下,我们的工作有很大的进展。
Led by the Party,great progress in our work is being made.(错)

5.Written in haste,the letter had some mistakes.(对)
由于写得匆忙,这封信里有几个错误。
Written in haste,he made some mistakes in the letter.(错)

6.Running after each other in the street,the two boys were knocked down by a bike.(对)
两个男孩在马路上相互追逐的时候被自行车撞倒了。

Running after each other in the street,a bike knocked down the two boys.(错)
但在实际语言中,时常可以遇到分词或分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语与整个句子的主语不一致的现象,但整个句子的语法结构又是正确的情况,尤其是在科技作品和英美文学作品中很为普遍,这种分词在语法上称为游离分词(unattached participle)或称为无关分词(unrelated participle)或称为悬垂分词(dangling participle)。下面就来谈谈能够成立的情形:

一、在独立主格结构中,分词或分词短语的逻辑主语与整个句子的主语不一致。如:

1.The professor entered the lab,his students following him.(伴随状况)
 那位教授走进实验室,学生们在后面跟着。

2.A few seconds later,he was looking at the screen again with the machinery turned on.(伴随状况)
 几秒钟后,他开了机器,盯着荧光屏。

3.The day being very wet,Mary wore her new mackintosh.(原因状语)
 因为这天是阴雨天气,玛丽穿上她的新雨衣。

4.The authorities having arrived and taken the seats reserved for them,the ceremony began.(时间状语)
 在负责人到达并在为他们保留的座位上就座以后,典礼就开始了。
5.Weather permitting,the ship will leave the harbour at dawn.(条件状语)
 如果天气不错的话,船将在黎明时离港。

6.He lay on his back,his knees drawn up.(方式状语)
 他蜷着腿,仰面躺着。

二、只有一些分词或分词短语可用来表示说话人的态度或看问题的角度,这些分词或短语已转变为独立成份,含有"泛指"之意,在句中常作插入语,这时分词或分词短语的逻辑主语也可以不必和全句的主语保持一致。如:

1.Judging from his appearance,he looks like an old doctor.
从外表看,他像一位老医生。

2.Strictly speaking,her pronunciation is not quite good.
严格地说,她的发音不十分地道。

3.Taken as a whole,there is nothing wrong with the article.
 总地来说,这篇文章没有什么问题。

 4.Looking at the question objectively,what he said is something believable.

客观地看,他说的话还有些可信之处。
经常这样用的分词短语有:
frankly speaking 老实地说,坦率地说
generally speaking 一般地说
strictly speaking 严格地说
properly speaking 确切地说来
talking or taken one with another 总地看来
taken as a whole 总地来说
这种分词短语可以说是一种句子状语,也可以看作是一个句子的独立成份。

三、有些现在分词和过去分词已具有介词或连词的性质,由它们组成的词组作状语时其逻辑主语和整个句子的主语不必保持一致。如:
1.He couldn''t attend the meeting owing to illness.
 他因病没能出席会议。

2.According to the text,please answer the following questions.
请按照课文的内容,回答下面问题。

3.The boy did quite well considering the circumstances.
考虑到具体情况,可以说这孩子干得很不错了。

4.Regarding the case,he knew nothing.
关于这件事,他一无所知。

经常这样用的分词有:
admitting that(conj.confessing that,承认)
assuming that(conj.if,假定)
barring(prep.except,除……以外,除非)

considering(prep.in view of...,having regard of...鉴于,就……而论)
concerning(prep.about,关于)
excepting(prep.&conj.leaving out,excluding,
-often after not,always,without,除……之外,包括)
failing(prep.in default of...,in the absence of...若缺少……时,如果没有)
owing to(prep.because of...,on account of...,因为……,由于……)
providing /provided that(conj.on condition that,假若,倘使)
regarding(prep.with reference to...,about,关于,有关)
seeing that(conj.in view of the fact that;considering,鉴于……的事实,由……的缘故)
上述诸词有些已完全变成了介词或连词。

四、在有些句子中,作状语的分词或分词短语的逻辑主语并不是整个句子的主语,而是包含在句子的另一个成份之中,大多数是宾语和定语。如:

1.Seeing her health sinking rapidly,alarm seized her father''s heart.
 她父亲看到她的健康状况急剧恶化,非常惊慌。(seeing的逻辑主语是heart的定语herfather)

2.His summer holidays were spent in the countryside,helping the farmers with their work.
 他在乡下度过暑假,假期中帮助农民干活。(helping的逻辑主语是holiday的定语his)

3.Running to school,a terrible thought struck her.
 跑到学校时,她突然产生了一个可怕的念头。(running的逻辑主语是struck的宾语her)
注:

1.若逻辑主语在句中根本没有出现,以上下文推测,常为泛指人称代词(we,you, one)等。如:
Facing north,there is a large mountain on the right.
面向北方,右边有座大山。

2.其逻辑主语为整个句子,该分词短语相当于关系代词which引导的特殊定语从句。如:

The bus was held up by the snowstorm, thus causing the delay.
公共汽车为大雪所阻,因而耽搁了。

First of all,this difficult problem has to be tackled,thus enabling us to proceed to the others.

首先这个难题必须解决,这样我们才能解决其它的问题。

五、如果句子的谓语是被动语态时,作状语的分词或分词短语的逻辑主语不是整个句子的主语,而是包含在由by引起的动作执行者或发出者中,尽管by引起的动作执行者大多不写出来。如:
1.Ideas can be expressed completely usingsimple sentence.
 用简单的句子也可以表示出完整的意思来。(using的逻辑主语包含在by[没有写出来]之中)

2.Knowing as much as you do,the situation is easily explained.
 像你这样了解情况,很容易解释这一局面。(knowing的逻辑主语包含在by[没有写出来]之中)

六、如果句子的主语是非人称代词it时,作状语用的分词或分词短语的逻辑主语也可不必与全句的主语保持一致。如:

1.It rained hard coming back.回来时雨下得很大。
(coming的逻辑主语显然不是句子的主语it)
2.It was quite hot getting up this morning.今天早晨起床时,天气非常热。
(getting up的逻辑主语显然不是句子的主语it)

 此类句子过去被认为是不合语法的,不被多数人所承认,但语言总是随着时代的发展而发展,随着社会的进步而丰富。目前在美国和英国,此类句子已被普遍接受。

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