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怎样认识被动句里 by短语、 with短语和in短语的不同意义
08-12-27 | www.ningbotutor.com | From: 网络 View:

   

怎样认识被动句里 by短语、 with短语和in短语的不同意义

    1)在被动句里,by主要用来表示主动者(agent),with表示主动者采用的工具或手段(instrument or means)。如:
        They had been caught by Italian guerrillas on April 27 while trying to escape to Switzerland and executed after a brief trial

          4月27他们试图逃往瑞士时被意大利的游击队抓获,简单地审问一下后被处决了。
        …it seemed as if all the bare trees
the bushesthe cut brush and all the grass and the bare ground had been varnished with ice
          ……
好像所有的秃树、灌木、砍过的树丛,所有的草和光秃秃的地面,全都罩上了一层冰。
        The tree was cut down with an axe
.这棵树被斧子砍倒了。
   
不过,有时by也可表示方法或手段。
        The house was lighted by electricity
.这房子用电照明。
        The house was lighted with electric lights
.这房子用电灯照明。
   
这里,by表示无形的手段,with表示有形的器具。
   
注意下句中by的意义:
        A tree is known by its fruit
.树的品种可以根据其果实看出来。
    known by
中的by并非表示主动者或手段,而是表示标准,意为根据。又如:
        The fact is known to everybody
.(=Everybody knows the fact.)这个事实众所周知。
   
known的后面,如表示主动者,通常用to,不用by
   
   
2By指具体人或事,with指抽象概念或事物。如:
        He was struck by a man
.他被人打了。
        He was struck with fever
.他发烧了。

   
3By表示动作,with表示状态。如:
        He was seriously wounded by a rolling stone
.滚动的石头使他受了重伤。
        The vast continent was covered with ice and snow
.这块辽阔的大陆被冰雪覆盖着。

   
4In往往用来表示场合或原因。如:
        I was caught in a shower
.我淋了一场雨。
        The house was destroyed in a big fire
.这座房子毁于一场大火

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